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미국에도 아픈 내전의 역사가 있다.
노예 해방 전쟁 이라고도 하는 남북 전쟁은 1861년 부터 1865년 까지 6년간 지속 되었는데 그 소모전을 치루는 동안 지금 까지 미국이 치른 모든 전쟁의 희생자 보다 많은 62만명의 희생자가 발생 하였다고 한다.
이 전쟁은 1865년 4월 남부군 사령관 로버트 리 장군의 항복으로 끝 났다.
Harrowing images have revealed the true horrors of the US Civil War - which claimed the lives of more than half a million in just four short years.
The Civil War remains the bloodiest war in US history. Fought between 1861 and 1865, it claimed 620,000 lives - nearly as many American casualties as every other war fought by the United States combined.
In these harrowing photos, the death and destruction of the battlefields as well as the horrors inside the Confederate's notorious Andersonville Prison are clear to see.
The Civil War remains the bloodiest war in US history. Fought between 1861 and 1865, it claimed 620,000 lives - nearly as many American casualties as every other war fought by the US combined. Pictured above, African-Americans collect the bones of soldiers killed in battle at Cold Harbor, Virginia, in June, 1864
Fallen soldiers at Gettysburg, Pennysylvania, following the historic battle fought during the Civil War in July 1863. In the Battle of Gettysburg, Union forces turned away a Confederate advance in the pivotal battle of the Civil War fought July 1-3, 1863, which was also the wars bloodiest conflict with more than 51,000 casualties
Unidentified emaciated Union Army prisoners are seen at Andersonville Prison in 1865. Andersonville Prison was a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp set-up during the final twelves months of the American Civil War
Andersonville Prison was overcrowded to four times its capacity. Of the 45,000 Union soldiers (one pictured left) held there, 13,000 died, with scurvy, diarrhea and dysentery as the chief causes of death. Pictured right is Alfred Stratton, whose arms were taken by a cannon shot during the American Civil War on June 18th, 1864. He was just 19 years old at the time. One in 13 Civil War soldiers became amputees
One picture titled 'A Harvest of Death', fallen soldiers are pictured following the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 and African-Americans are seen collecting the bones of soldiers killed in battle at Cold Harbour, Virginia one year later in 1864.
In one particularly disturbing 1865 image, a skeletal survivor of the confederate prisoner-of-war camp, Andersonville Prison looks sadly into the camera.
Andersonville was often overcrowded to four times its capacity with an inadequate food and water supply. In the last twelve months of the Civil War, 13,000 Union prisoners died in this camp.
At its height in August of 1864, the camp held more than 33,000 PoWs in just 26 acres of open ground - without shelter or even clothing for the inmates.
Infested with vermin and lice, the only source of water was a tiny creek polluted with raw sewage.
Inmates were not provided with any shelter or even any clothes except those they were wearing when captured. Men, wearing their tattered Union uniforms, were forced to sleep in makeshift tents or holes dug in the ground.
Around 56,000 soldiers died in prisons during the Civil War - making up around ten per cent of all the war's casualties. At Alton prison in Illinois, more than 1,500 Rebels died in custody from disease
An emaciated unidentified Union Army soldier receiving help at a hospital in May 1865, after the Civil War had ended and Andersonville Prison closed its doors
During Swiss-born Confederate Captain Henry Wirz's fourteen months in charge of Andersonville (pictured above being built), 13,000 Union prisoners of war died from disease and starvation while witness claimed they had seen the captain personally murdering and torturing prisoners. He had also ordered guards to do the same.
A view of Andersonville Prison, August 17th, 1864. This picture shows the deadline (the wooden fence) if any prisoner stepped beyond it or reached over the guards had orders to kill them
Andersonville camp, pictured in 1864, was the location of America's most notorious PoW camp during the Civil War where inmates were tortured, starved and died in their thousands. At its height in August of 1864, the camp held more than 33,000 PoWs in just 26 acres of open ground - without shelter or even clothing for the inmates
A dead confederate soldiers who died at the Battle of Spotsylvania in Virginia is pictured above on May 19, 1864. The battle was the second major battle in Lt Gen Ulysses S Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign. After the Battle of the Wilderness, Grant moved southeast, in an attempt to lure Lee to more favorable conditions
Bodies of the battlefield at Antietam, Maryland, in September 1862. The battle of Antietam was the single bloodiest day of fighting in US history, with over 20,000 people killed, wounded or declared missing
But Camp Sumter was by far the most fatal with almost a third of its 45,000 Union soldiers dying in just 14 months.
Following the surrender by the Confederates at the Battle of Appomattox Court House in April 9, 1865 - one of the last battles of the American Civil War - horrific stories from the camp's survivors began reaching the north.
Confederate Captain Henry Wirz, became one of the nation's most hated men after shocking photographs of survivors starved into living skeletons emerged after the war, revealing the terrible treatment of prisons at the camp - something that wasn't seen again until the Nazi death camps in the Second World War.
During Swiss-born Wirz's fourteen months in charge of Andersonville, 13,000 Union prisoners of war died from disease and starvation while witness claimed they had seen the captain personally murdering and torturing prisoners. He had also ordered guards to do the same.
After the war ended, Wirz, a native of Zurich, Switzerland, was arrested and taken to Washington to answer for his crimes.
The Confederate claimed he had simply been following orders and blamed the South's lack of food for starving the prisoners. He also claimed the North's refusal to exchange prisoners had forced him to keep so many.
The bodies of Confederate soldiers were lined in a neat row at Alsop Farm in Virginia after being killed on May 19, 1864. They were laid out for burial at a house adjacent to part of the battlefield of the Battle of Harris Farm
An unidentified Confederate soldier was killed on May 19, 1864, an Alsop Farm, Virginia, during the Battle of Harris Farm. The Harris Farm Engagement was part of the Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, hed by Union Major Gen Winfield Hancock and Confederate Gen Richard S Ewell. Ewell's men had the upper hand at first, though Hancock's larger numbers soon gained control. Both sides took heavy casualties
The body of a dead Confederate soldier lies in a trench at Fort Mahone on April 3, 1865, in Petersburg, Virginia. He died during an attack which was part of the Third Battle of Petersburg, at the end of the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign near the conclusion of the Civil War. The Confederate army was reduced by over 10,000 men in the battle
A dead confederate soldier in the trenches of Fort Mahone, Virginia, April 1865. e died during an attack which was part of the Third Battle of Petersburg. Union soldiers occupied Richmond and Petersburg on April 3, 1865, and while other soldiers surrounded the Confederates, Robert E Lee was forced to surrender on April 9, 1865, after the Battle of Appomattox Court House
The ruin os Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Bridge, in Richmond, Virginia, in April 1865. It was destroyed by the Confederate Army. Prior to its destruction, it carried the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad over the James River in Richmond, Virginia
The ruin of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Bridge seen in Richmond, Virginia, in April 1865. The bridge was destroyed by Confederate soldiers in anticipation of the Fall of Richmond. It was rebuilt the following year, only to be burned again in 1882
Despite his protestations, Wirz was found guilty of multiple counts of murder, abuse, and war crimes and on November 10, 1865, he was sentenced to death in front of 250 spectators. His corpse was later buried in an unmarked grave.
For four deadly years, the country endured not only its bloodiest and most vicious military conflict, but also some of its cruelest racial hatred.
Adding to the already immense heap of skulls, Confederates used disease, starvation, exposure, and outright execution to kill hundreds of thousands of former slaves during the war, a figure not included in death toll estimates thanks to a deliberate lack of record keeping.
The end of all this bloodshed began when Union General Ulysses S Grant relentlessly assaulted Petersburg, Virginia for nine months in hopes of destroying Confederate General Robert E Lee's army, who eventually capitulated in April 1865.
With the bulk of the Confederate military strength gone, the end of the war was imminent. In May, Union troops in Georgia captured Confederate President Jefferson Davis - who promptly almost got away.
The leader of the unit that captured Davis became distracted and left his prisoner in the hands of his adjutant.
That man was nearly fooled into letting Davis - who slipped into disguise as an old woman - escape. But when troops noticed the old woman's boots and spurs, Davis was caught.
Davis spent the next two years in prison, and the country spent the ensuing decades trying to rebuild from the conflict that very nearly tore it apart.
|미국 내전, 아픈 역사의 기록|