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From the love child he denied to the temper that terrified his staff, the dark side of the iPod god Steve Jobs
His worshippers number in the hundreds of millions, the most devoted of whom will queue for days outside his ‘temples’ to wait for his latest gift to mankind.
Steve Jobs, 56, founder and visionary leader of Apple, is for many the god of our consumer age.
But he’s not immortal. Having battled cancer since 2004, the chief executive of one of the world’s most prized and influential companies is stepping down.
Lasting love: Steve Jobs with his wife Laurene attending the Oscars in Hollywood
You can understand the shock — and even panic — reverberating around the globe among obsessive fans of his products, never mind at Apple’s lavish headquarters in Cupertino, California.
For this is the man who brought us the iMac, the iPhone, the iPod and the iPad — who convinced us to splash out up to £500 again and again on gadgets we never knew we needed.
Forget that the business world may be losing one of its most influential figures, say the legions of Apple addicts. Where’s our next must-have new gadget going to come from?
But if Apple’s products are all about accessibility and user-friendliness, the same can hardly be said for the cult-like company’s leader. To admirers, he is the grinning, endlessly enthusiastic tech genius who bounds on stage at Apple product launches.
But there is another, rather harder side to Jobs which appears at odds with his image as the chilled-out Zen Buddhist who once quoted an entire verse of Bob Dylan lyrics at a shareholders’ meeting.
Ailing: Steve Jobs has been suffering pancreatic cancer and is undergoing continuing treatment
If Zen Buddhism is about sometimes treating staff badly, refusing to acknowledge the paternity of your child and giving little of the company’s money to charity, then Jobs is indeed ‘very Zen’.
‘He’s a mass of contradictions,’ says his biographer, Leander Kahney.
‘He’s a Buddhist and they’re supposed to be anti-materialist. And yet he runs this vast company.’
The stereotype of a cool New York sophisticate, Jobs famously wears only black and has a minimalist philosophy so severe that friends recall visiting his mansion to find it virtually empty but for a picture of Einstein, a Tiffany lamp, a chair and a bed.
In the Apple HQ, so great is the culture of secrecy that executives are said to deliberately pass misinformation to colleagues to see who spreads it.
Engineers working on sensitive projects are watched constantly by cameras and have to cover up prototypes with black sheets so no one can see them.
For decades, Jobs, thought to be worth more than $5 billion, has tried to put a metaphorical black sheet over his private life, too, stalking out of interviews and blacklisting publications that did not tell his life story as he presented it.
A biographer has described him as the ‘Jackie Kennedy Onassis of business and technology — a figure who is ubiquitous as a symbol of his times, but little known as a human being’.
You can understand his reticence. As with his rollercoaster business career, his personal life has had its ups and downs.
The beginnings: Steve Jobs with an early Apple computer in 1977
He was raised in Mountain View, California, by a working-class couple, Paul and Clara, who adopted him. His biological parents were a Syrian graduate student named Abdulfattah Jandali and another academic named Joanne Schieble.
Jandali, son of a self-made millionaire, claimed they put him up for adoption because Joanne’s father was extremely conservative and wouldn’t let Jandali marry her.
He was placed with a private adoption agency and Joanne tried to insist their son went to university-educated parents.
Neither Paul Jobs, a machine operator, nor his wife could make such a claim: his mother only signed the papers after they promised to send him to university.
Some have claimed that Jobs’s absent real father may be crucial in explaining his contradictory and sometimes combative personality.
‘I send him a message on his birthday, but neither of us has made overtures to come closer to the other,’ Jandali said recently. ‘I tend to think that if he wants to spend time with me, he knows where I am.’
At college, friends say Jobs developed eating problems, ‘starving’ himself on all-fruit or all-grain diets, or binge-eating and forcing himself to be sick. He is still a vegetarian: his favorite dish was once said to be shredded raw carrots.
Revolutionary: CEO and co-founder Steve Jobs with the new Apple iPhone after his keynote at the Macworld Expo in San Francisco, California in 2009
Jobs only lasted a few months at university in Oregon before dropping out and surviving off free meals from the local Hare Krishna temple.
Searching for spiritual enlightenment, he headed for India, coming back — head shaved — as a Buddhist. He experimented with LSD, describing it as ‘one of the two or three most important things’ he had done in his life.
Women have similarly been a complicated issue with Jobs. Friends who knew about his own adoption were horrified when Jobs’s first serious girlfriend, a painter named Chris-Ann Brennan, became pregnant in 1977 and Jobs didn’t believe he was the father.
The mother initially raised their daughter on benefits. Jobs accepted his responsibilities after a court-ordered blood test proved he was the father.
It wasn’t until he was in his 30s that Jobs discovered he had a sister: his biological parents had subsequently married and had a girl, now the novelist Mona Simpson, and the two became friends.
Although he has been married since 1991 — happily, insist Silicon Valley insiders — to blonde beauty Laurene Powell (they have three children), Jobs previously had a string of well-connected girlfriends.
Deciding the ‘young, superintelligent, artistic women’ he liked were not to be found in California, in the Eighties he bought a multi-million-dollar apartment at the top of New York’s famous San Remo building on Central Park.
It became his base for periodic visits to the Big Apple where he would take out famous actresses, including Diane Keaton, artists and writers. None of his romances lasted long.
He once dated the folk singer Joan Baez. A college friend believes he became her lover ‘because Baez had been the lover of Bob Dylan’, with whom he had long been fixated.
Jobs appears somewhat celebrity obsessed. He has delivered Macintosh computers personally to stars he reveres, including Mick Jagger, Andy Warhol and Yoko Ono. Jagger was unimpressed, leaving the hapless Jobs to demonstrate it to the singer’s daughter.
Toast of technology: President Barack Obama (second from right) has dinner with technology industry executives including Mark Zuckerberg from Facebook on his right and Steve Jobs on his left
If his private life reveals a capacity for incredible boyish charm and a less endearing side, so too does his work existence. His enormous success is due not only to his genius for design and ability to predict what consumers will want, but his phenomenal capacity for hard work.
By the Eighties Apple, the company he had co-founded in the late Seventies, became the first to use computers controlled by a mouse. With his drive and vision, it became one of the most successful computer companies in the world, turning him into a multi-millionaire.
But his autocratic style of leadership led to a power struggle with the board, and Jobs resigned in 1984. He went on to start another computer company which was then bought out by Apple. He returned to Apple as chief executive in 1997.
In recent years, Apple employees have observed that their notoriously prickly boss plays both good cop and bad cop, using flattery and fear to get his way. Profiling America’s Toughest Bosses, Fortune magazine once said Jobs’s ‘inhuman drive for perfection can burn out even the most motivated worker’.
He is unpredictable, apparently firing questions at interview candidates such as ‘How old were you when you lost your virginity?’ and ‘How many times have you taken LSD?’, before chanting ‘Gobble, gobble, gobble’.
His verbal assaults on staff can be terrifying, foul in temper and language. ‘Everybody has a “Steve yelled in my face story”,’ said biographer Kahney. He added, however, that Jobs has mellowed over the years, particularly after he was ousted from Apple.
Despite his glittering intelligence and capacity to charm, his bluntness sometimes veers into gaucheness.
When President Mitterrand of France invited him to a formal dinner during a trip to California, Jobs asked if he could eat pasta because he had recently been to Tuscany. He interrupted a female business partner during a negotiation to ask if she was really a natural blonde.
On another occasion, he demanded to know if she had put on weight.
In recent years, however, it is his health that has been making almost as many headlines as his iconic gadgets. Jobs has been on medical leave since January. He underwent surgery for pancreatic cancer in 2004. Two years later, he sparked speculation about his health when he appeared gaunt and listless as he gave a keynote speech at a computer conference.
Jobs insisted his health issues were not life threatening and did not involve a recurrence of cancer. But in 2009 — a year after financial news service Bloomberg mistakenly published his obituary — Jobs received a liver transplant.
Perhaps now that he has stepped down as CEO, the man dubbed by Fortune magazine as ‘one of Silicon Valley’s leading egomaniacs’ will have more time for the philanthropy espoused by other technology billionaires such as Bill Gates.
He certainly has a lot of catching up to do, given that after resuming control of the company in 1997, when he brought it back from the brink of collapse, its donations to charity were stopped.
As for the company’s future without him, Apple fans may be worried that the conveyor belt of iconic designs will dry up. Whether his hard-pressed staff will miss him quite so much is another matter.
동업자 속이고도 죄의식 없었던 '무법자 잡스'
알려지지 않은 뒷얘기들
워즈니악이 만든 게임 SW, 1000달러에 팔아놓고는 "600달러 받았다" 거짓말
채식주의자에 비틀스 광팬… 제일 좋아하는 노래 '이매진'
지난 24일 미국 애플의 최고경영자(CEO)에서 물러난 스티브 잡스가 늘 직원들에게 했던 말이다. 다른 사람의 시선이나 고정관념·규칙에 얽매이지 말고 세상이 깜짝 놀랄 일을 하자는 뜻이다. 그는 실제로 해적처럼 살아왔고 직원들도 그렇게 행동하기를 원했다.
◆잡스 창의력의 원천은 '해적 정신'
잡스는 1955년 샌프란시스코에서 시리아 유학생과 미국인 여학생 사이에서 태어났다. 외모가 아랍계처럼 보이는 것은 이 때문이다. 가난한 대학원생 부부는 잡스를 기를 여력이 없었다. 잡스는 1주일 만에 폴 잡스와 클라라 잡스 부부에게 입양됐다. 양부 폴 잡스는 고등학교를 중퇴하고 막노동을 하던 남자였다. 그는 "아이는 꼭 대학에 보내겠다"고 친부모에게 약속하고 입양을 허락받았다.
어린 시절 스티브 잡스는 호기심이 강해 늘 말썽을 일으켰다. 집 구석에 놓인 바퀴벌레약을 먹고 거의 죽을 뻔한 일도 있었다. 초등학교 시절 전자부품을 조립해 만드는 장난감을 갖고 놀면서 기술에 관심을 갖게 됐다. 정학·마약·무단결석을 밥 먹듯이 했지만 새로운 기술과 제품에 대한 열정을 버리진 않았다.
잡스는 오리건주에 있는 리드대 철학과에 입학하지만 한 학기 만에 때려치운다. 그렇지만 1년 넘게 학교에 남아서 청강생처럼 수업을 들었다. 잡스는 "아름다운 글자체를 연구하는 서체(書體·calligraphy) 과목이 제일 재미있었다"고 회고했다. 디자인에 눈을 뜬 것이다.
고향으로 돌아온 잡스는 다섯 살 많은 동네 형 스티브 워즈니악과 애플을 공동 창업한다. 잡스는 천부적인 마케터였고, 워즈니악은 천재적 엔지니어였다. 잡스는 그가 48시간 만에 만든 게임 프로그램을 1000달러에 팔고는 "600달러 받았다"고 거짓말을 하고 워즈니악에게 300달러만 나눠준다. '해적'에게 죄의식은 없었다.
◆가족조차 짐으로 여겼던 나쁜 남자
잡스는 철저한 개인주의자다. 심지어 가족도 안중에 없었다. 사귀던 여자 친구 크리스 앤과 사이에 딸인 리사가 태어났지만 잡스는 자기 딸이 아니라고 부인했다. 양육비도 주지 않아 미혼모인 앤이 근근이 정부보조금을 받아 아이를 키웠다.
나중에 성장한 딸이 친자 확인 소송을 제기하자 그제서야 자신의 딸로 받아들였다.
그는 1991년 로렌 파웰이란 여성과 정식으로 결혼했다. 자녀는 리사를 포함해 4명. 잡스는 "암 투병을 거치면서 가족이 얼마나 중요한지 새삼 깨닫게 됐다"고 털어놓았다.
◆선불교에 심취해 머리 박박 밀기도
잡스는 과일과 채소 위주의 식단을 고수하는 채식주의자다. 생선은 먹지만 스테이크 같은 고기는 절대 먹지 않는다.
'몽상가'인 잡스는 비틀스의 광적인 팬이다. 제일 좋아하는 노래는 존 레넌의 '이매진(Imagine)'. '나를 보고 몽상가라 비웃을지 모르지만, 나만이 몽상가는 아니랍니다(You may say I'm a dreamer, but I'm not the only one)'란 가사에 끌리는 것이다.
잡스는 1996년 애플에 복귀한 뒤 지금까지 연봉 1달러만 받았다. 하지만 그는 올 3월 포브스가 선정한 세계 부호 순위에서 재산 83억달러(9조원)로 110위에 올랐다. 연봉 대신 보너스와 스톡옵션으로 막대한 돈을 벌어들인 것이다. 자가용 제트기를 보너스로 받기도 했다.
◆건강 상태 심각한 듯
잡스는 췌장암의 일종인 신경내분비암(癌)을 수년간 앓고 있다. 올해 초 스위스 바젤대 병원에서 첨단 방사선 치료를 받은 것으로 알려졌다. 바젤에 본사가 있는 다국적 제약회사 노바티스의 암 치료제 신약(新藥) 임상시험에 참여했다는 말도 있다. 종양내과 전문의들은 "잡스가 경영에서 완전히 손을 떼는 것으로 보아 치료 효과를 제대로 보지 못했거나, 더 강도 높은 치료를 받아야 할 것"으로 추측했다.
pancreatic neuroendocrine islet cell tumor
In 2004, doctors found that Jobs had a pancreatic neuroendocrine islet cell tumor, which is very different from the more well-known pancreatic cancer that took the life of actor Patrick Swayze in 2009.
"They are slower-growing tumors than typical pancreatic cancers. The survival rate for more typical cancers is much lower," said Dr. Alejandro Ayala, associate clinical professor of medicine at the University of Miami's Miller School of Medicine.
"Some people have described them as cancer in slow motion," said Dr. Jonathan Strosberg, attending physician at the Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Fla. "Patients tend to live longer, even if it's in its later stages. The average survival is six years from diagnosis."
Neuroendocrine cancers affect cells throughout the body that secrete hormones. The tumors can cause the secretion of either too much hormone or not enough. They are relatively rare, but more and more new cases are being diagnosed, and experts attribute that trend to better recognition of these tumors.
Most recently, as Jobs battled pancreatic cancer, he shied away from disclosing health details to the public or to his employees. Fortune magazine reported that instead of surgery to remove the malignant tumor, Jobs instead treated his tumor with a special diet. The Apple Board of Directors pressured Jobs to get the surgery, and eventually he did.
Jobs' Swiss Treatment Experimental and Effective
Experts say the treatment Jobs underwent is an experimental procedure called peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). It involves delivering radiation to tumor cells by attaching one of two radioactive isotopes to a drug that mimics somatostatin, the hormone that regulates the entire endocrine system and the secretion of other hormones.
Specialists who treat neuroendocrine cancers say PRRT is very effective, but because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration hasn't yet approved it, patients who want the treatment typically head to Europe for it.
"It shrinks tumors in about a third of cases significantly, and it lasts on average about two to three years," said Strosberg.
"Even though you get tumor shrinkage, you mostly get disease progression that stabilizes," said Dr. Thomas O'Dorisio, professor of medicine at the University of Iowa in Iowa City.
Experts believe the FDA will eventually approve PRRT.
"The data are coming out slowly. There's never been a phase 3 clinical trial, and that's why it's not okayed yet," said O'Dorisio.
"It's a new, experimental treatment, and it has to go through the same approval process as all drugs," said Ayala.
PRRT Treatment Also Costly
A company called Excel Diagnostics Imaging Clinics, based out of Houston, Tex., was approved by the FDA to begin an investigational new drug trial for PRRT. However, O'Dorisio said it's cheaper to get the therapy at University Hospital of Basel in Switzerland, where Jobs is believed to have received his.
"It's $4,200 per treatment at Basel," said O'Dorisio. He said patients generally receive four treatments. He estimates the cost of treatment in Texas at $15,000 per treatment, which may or may not be covered by health insurance.
He also said he's sent about 400 of his patients to Basel because of the cost, and because the hospital there offers the best treatment.
Other treatment options include surgical removal of the primary tumor, and a drug called sandostatin that mimics the action of somatostatin and other drugs that are FDA-approved for kidney cancer that have also shown promise against pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Experts say there are also other radiotherapeutic agents currently in development.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer often spreads to the liver, which experts believe happened to Jobs, but liver transplants are generally not an option for people with neuroendocrine cancers.
"People with liver tumors can live for very long. They are very slow-growing and they are not candidates for liver transplants," said O'Dorisio.
It's difficult to predict how long Jobs will survive, since survival depends on a number of factors, and Jobs has kept details about his condition private.
"Survival depends on the aggressiveness of the tumor and if it's malignant," said Ayala.
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