III. 사비성이 Constantinople일 가능성 검토 (본론 -중C)
Constantinople은 서양사에서 오랫 동안 수도로서의 중심 역할을 한 것으로 기술되어 있다. 로마가 4두 정치에 의해 나누어져 통치될 때부터 동로마지역의 수도로서 역할을 했다고 기술된다. 서기 3세기부터 줄곧 그러한 역할을 했다고 기술되었다. 워낙 이지역이 고대사로부터 역사가 있는 지역이므로 이해가 된다. 그러면 백제의 한성과 웅진의 천도와 어떤 관계가 있을까? 3세기부터 수도로서의 위치를 누려 왔던 점을 고려하면 그리고 바닷가에 접해 있는 점을 고려하면 웅진과 더 관계가 깊을 것으로 판단된다.
콘스탄트노플이 사비성일까 아닌가 하는 판단은 그래서 그 의미가 많이 축소된다.
그러나 사비성의 가능성을 검토한다면 다음과 같이 요약될 수 있다.
콘스탄티노플이 사비성의 조건과 부합하는 조건들;
1. 동로마제국 내내 수도로서 역할을 하였다는 Wikipedia의 기록이다. (아래 글 참조). 따라서 수도로서 사비성의 가능성은 있다.
그러나 훈족, 서고트족의 침입이후 특히 378년 Battle of Adrianople이후 콘스탄티노플이 이의 없는 고정된 수도로서 역할을 하였다고 기술된다. (아래 적색글 참조) 특히 413-414년에 Theodosius II는 18미터의 3중의 견고한 성을 쌓았다고 했다. (아래 적색글 및 그림 참조). 이는 사비성이 아닌 웅진성의 이야기에 보다 가깝다 판단된다.
"324-337: Foundation of Constantinople
Constantine had altogether more colourful plans. Having restored the unity of the Empire, and, being in the course of major governmental reforms as well as of sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, he was well aware that Rome was an unsatisfactory capital. Rome was too far from the frontiers, and hence from the armies and the imperial courts, and it offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location.
Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the right place: a place where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire.
Constantinople was built over six years, and consecrated on 11 May 330. Constantine divided the expanded city, like Rome, into 14 regions, and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial metropolis. Yet, at first, Constantine's new Rome did not have all the dignities of old Rome. It possessed a proconsul, rather than an urban prefect. It had no praetors, tribunes, or quaestors. Although it did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. It also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts, or other public works. The new programme of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors, and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. In similar fashion, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to the citizens. At the time, the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.
Constantine laid out a new square at the centre of old Byzantium, naming it the Augustaeum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the Emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. Nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the famed Baths of Zeuxippus. At the western entrance to the Augustaeum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Roman Empire.
From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese (Greek: Μ?ση [Οδ??], lit. '"Middle [Street]"'), lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second Senate-house and a high column with a statue of Constantine himself in the guise of Helios, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking toward the rising sun. From there, the Mese passed on and through the Forum Tauri and then the Forum Bovis, and finally up the Seventh Hill (or Xerolophus) and through to the Golden Gate in the Constantinian Wall. After the construction of the Theodosian Walls in the early 5th century, it was extended to the new Golden Gate, reaching a total length of seven Roman miles. After the construction of the Theodosian Walls, Constantinople consisted of an area approximately the size of Old Rome within the Aurelian walls, or some 1,400 ha.
337-529: Constantinople during the Barbarian Invasions and the fall of the West
The importance of Constantinople increased, but it was gradual. From the death of Constantine in 337 to the accession of Theodosius I, emperors had been resident only in the years 337-338, 347-351, 358-361, 368-369. Its status as a capital was recognized by the appointment of the first known Urban Prefect of the City Honoratus, who held office from 11 December 359 until 361. .............
After the shock of the Battle of Adrianople in 378, in which the emperor Valens with the flower of the Roman armies was destroyed by the Visigoths within a few days' march, the city looked to its defences, and in 413-414 Theodosius II built the 18-metre (60-foot)-tall triple-wall fortifications, which were not to be breached until the coming of gunpowder.
Uldin, a prince of the Huns, appeared on the Danube about this time and advanced into Thrace, but he was deserted by many of his followers, who joined with the Romans in driving their king back north of the river. Subsequent to this, new walls were built to defend the city and the fleet on the Danube improved.
After the barbarians overran the Western Roman Empire, Constantinople became the indisputable capital city of the Roman Empire. Emperors were no longer peripatetic between various court capitals and palaces. They remained in their palace in the Great City and sent generals to command their armies. The wealth of the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia flowed into Constantinople."
2. 백제의 성왕으로 추정되는 Justinian 황제때에도 533년 Belisarius 장군을 아프리카 원정에 파병할 때 콘스탄티노플 앞에서 수군들의 출정식을 했다.(아래 적색글 참조)
그러나 수도 사비는 여러 가지 지형조건으로 보았을 때, 항구가 아닌 것으로 판단된다. 따라서 콘스탄티노플은 사비가 아닌 웅진으로 판단할 수 있다. 즉 성왕의 사비 천도가 바로 이루어지지 않고 웅진에 있다가 사비로 옮겼을 수 있다고 생각된다.
백제의 성왕은 전륜성왕으로 불릴 만큼 불교의 진흥에 노력했다고 우리 역사에서는 말하고 있다.
반면 Wikipedia 자료는 Justinian 황제가 기독교를 위해 노력한 것으로 기술된다. 그러나 이로 인한 종교적 갈등으로 Nika 폭동이 있었다고 한다. 이후 Hagia Sophia 성당을 재건했다고 한다. (아래 글 참조)
두 사람 모두 종교적인 면에서 열심이었다는 것은 공통점을 보인다.
여하튼 콘스탄티노플은 융성하여 인구가 50만에 달했다고 한다. 그러나 541-542년 페스트병이 유행하여 도시인구의 40%가 죽었다고 했다. 20만명이 죽었다는 것이다. (아래 글 참조). 이것이 수도 이전의 사유가 된 것인지도 모른다.
The emperor Justinian I (527-565) was known for his successes in war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. It was from Constantinople that his expedition for the reconquest of the former Diocese of Africa set sail on or about 21 June 533. Before their departure, the ship of the commander Belisarius was anchored in front of the Imperial palace, and the Patriarch offered prayers for the success of the enterprise. ..........
Chariot-racing had been important in Rome for centuries. In Constantinople, the hippodrome became over time increasingly a place of political significance. It was where (as a shadow of the popular elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval of a new emperor, and also where they openly criticized the government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers. In the time of Justinian, public order in Constantinople became a critical political issue.
Throughout the late Roman and early Byzantine periods, Christianity was resolving fundamental questions of identity, and the dispute between the orthodox and the monophysites became the cause of serious disorder, expressed through allegiance to the horse-racing parties of the Blues and the Greens. The partisans of the Blues and the Greens were said to affect untrimmed facial hair, head hair shaved at the front and grown long at the back, and wide-sleeved tunics tight at the wrist; and to form gangs to engage in night-time muggings and street violence. At last these disorders took the form of a major rebellion of 532, known as the "Nika" riots (from the battle-cry of "Conquer!" of those involved).
Fires started by the Nika rioters consumed Constantine's basilica of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), the city's principal church, which lay to the north of the Augustaeum. Justinian commissioned Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to replace it with a new and incomparable Hagia Sophia. This was the great cathedral of the Orthodox Church, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets. The dedication took place on 26 December 537 in the presence of the emperor, who exclaimed, "O Solomon, I have outdone thee!" Hagia Sophia was served by 600 people including 80 priests, and cost 20,000 pounds of gold to build.
Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles built by Constantine with a new church under the same dedication. This was designed in the form of an equal-armed cross with five domes, and ornamented with beautiful mosaics. This church was to remain the burial place of the Emperors from Constantine himself until the 11th century. When the city fell to the Turks in 1453, the church was demolished to make room for the tomb of Mehmet II the Conqueror. Justinian was also concerned with other aspects of the city's built environment, legislating against the abuse of laws prohibiting building within 100 feet (30 m) of the sea front, in order to protect the view.
During Justinian I's reign, the city's population reached about 500,000 people. However, the social fabric of Constantinople was also damaged by the onset of the Plague of Justinian between 541-542 AD. It killed perhaps 40% of the city's inhabitants.
그 이후 콘스탄티노플은 674-678년, 717-718년 아랍군에 의해 포위되었다 했다. (아래 글 참조) 그러나 테오도시어 황제가 쌓은 wall덕분에 버티었다고 한다.
우리는 지난 글에서 654년 Battle of the Masts에서 태자시절의 문무왕으로 판단되는 Muawiyah가 이끄는 아랍군이 콘스탄티노플을 포위했으나 함락시키지 못하고 아랍내 내부 반란때문에 철수했다고 한 글을 기억한다.
우리 역사에서는 사비성이 함락된 후 의자왕이 웅진성으로 피신한 후 항복한 것으로 기술된다. 따라서 콘스탄티노플은 사비성이라기 보다 웅진성에 보다 가깝다고 판단하게 한다.
In the early 7th century, the Avars and later the Bulgars overwhelmed much of the Balkans, threatening Constantinople with attack from the west. Simultaneously, the Persian Sassanids overwhelmed the Prefecture of the East and penetrated deep into Anatolia. Heraclius, son of the exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the throne. He found the military situation so dire that he is said to have contemplated withdrawing the imperial capital to Carthage, but relented after the people of Constantinople begged him to stay. The citizens lost their right to free grain in 618 when Heraclius realised that the city could no longer be supplied from Egypt as a result of the Persian wars: the population fell substantially as a result.
While the city withstood a siege by the Sassanids and Avars in 626, Heraclius campaigned deep into Persian territory and briefly restored the status quo in 628, when the Persians surrendered all their conquests. However, further sieges followed the Arab conquests, first from 674 to 678 and then in 717 to 718. The Theodosian Walls kept the city impregnable from the land, while a newly discovered incendiary substance known as Greek Fire allowed the Byzantine navy to destroy the Arab fleets and keep the city supplied. In the second siege, the second ruler of Bulgaria, Khan Tervel, rendered decisive help. He was called Saviour of Europe.
Map of Istanbul
Pictures of Theodosian walls, city walls of Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey
Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences. The first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, and surrounded the city on both land and sea fronts. Later, in the 5th century, the Praetorian prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front. This formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, and it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the 'seven hills' of Rome. Because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, and this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces, domes, and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents (Europe and Asia) and two seas (the Mediterranean and the Black Sea). Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defences of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years.
(source : Constantinople, Wikipedia)
3. 현재의 이스탄불 공항 이름이 Sabiha (사비하) Gokcen International airport이다.
사비하는 사비성을 둘러싼 강이라 했다. 나중에 백마강으로 명칭이 변경되었다 했다. 그런데 이 사비하란 명칭이 어떻게 이스탄불 공항이름에 있는가? 그들은 사비하의 뜻을 알고 쓰는 것인가? 우리가 풀어야 할 수수께끼가 많음을 본다.
그러나 콘스탄티노플은 다음과 같은 조건에서 사비성의 조건과 맞지 않는다.
1. 사비성 주위에 3개의 산이 있다는 지형상 조건과 맞지 않는다. 주위에 산이 없다.
2. 사비성의 조건인 성안에 처소가 있을 정도의 넓은 들을 포함한 지역을 감싸는 지형이 아니라는 것
즉 성안이 좁아 식량이 조달되지 못하기 때문에 오래 버틸 수 없다는 약점이 있다. 웅진에 보다 가깝다.
3. 백제의 무왕으로 판단되는 비잔틴제국의 Heraclius황제 때 Constantinople이 너무 협소하고 식량을 조달 할 수 없어 군사적 요충지로서 한계를 지니고 있어 자신의 출신지역인 Carthago로 수도를 옮기려 했다는 기록이 있다.
Heraclius, son of the exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the throne. He found the military situation so dire that he is said to have contemplated withdrawing the imperial capital to Carthage, but relented after the people of Constantinople begged him to stay. The citizens lost their right to free grain in 618 when Heraclius realised that the city could no longer be supplied from Egypt as a result of the Persian wars: the population fell substantially as a result.
(source : Constantinople, Wikipedia)
"With the Persians at the very gate of Constantinople, Heraclius thought of abandoning the city and moving the capital to Carthage, but the powerful church figure Patriarch Sergius convinced him to stay."
중국의 『주서(周書)』이역전 백제조에는 “지방에는 다시 5방이 있으니, 중방은 고사성, 동방은 득안성, 남방은 구지하성, 서방은 도선성, 북방은 웅진성이다.(其外更有五方 中方曰古沙城 東方曰得安城 南方曰久知下城 西方曰刀先城 北方曰熊津城)”라고 기록되어 있어, 사비 천도 이후에도 웅진성이 북방의 주요 거점성으로 기능하였음을 알 수 있다.