트럼프와 헌법
06/08/2020 08:00
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미국 해병대 대장출신으로 트럼프대통령의 첫번째 국방장관을 역임했다가

그의 시리아(Syria)철군정책에 반대를 한 후 사임했던 제임스 매티스(James Mattis)장군이

약 1년 6개월의 침묵을 깨고 잡지 "어틀랜틱"(The Atlantic)에 

트럼프대통령을 실랄하게 비판하는 글을 썼다.


월요일 아침에 영어공부도 할겸 (있는것은 시간이니까) 전문을 올린다.


미국의 대통령이 미국의 헌법에서 보장하는 "법 앞에서 평등한 정의"(Equal Justice Under Law)

원칙에 위배되는 행위를 하고있으며 미국사회를 화합(통일)시키려고 하기보다는 

분열을 조장하고 있다고 쓰고있다.

그리고 이같은 상황에서 정규군을 출동시키는 것은 미국의 시민(국민)과 군부간의 상호신임/존중의

중요한 전통을 깨트리게하는 일이라고 비난했다.



미국 연방대법원 건물이고

정문 위에 Equal Justice Under Law라고 쓴것이 보인다.




과거에 없었던 일이 미국에서 벌어지고 있다.

미국군에서 최고의 계급까지 진급했던 예비역장성 7명이 

최근 전국을 휩쓰는 "플로이드 시위소요"사태에 관련하여 

트럼프대통령이 미국의 정규군을 출동시키겠다고 엄포를 놓은것에 대하여 (was a really bad idea!)

매우 비판적인 발언을 공개적으로 했다는 것이다.  미국의 군역사에 없는 일이다.

역사적으로 미국의 군부는 항상 미국의 정치와는 거리를 멀리하고 정치에 대한 무관심속에(apolitical) 

그들의 직분을 묵묵하게 수행해온 집단이다. 

미헌법에 군통수권은 대통령에게 있기때문에 더우기 이런 일은 이변이다.

이 분들이 모두 현역이 아니고 예비역 장성들이지만 그래도 이변이다.

현역으로 맥카서장군(서, Gen. MacArthur)이 공개적으로 대중공정책에 반대를 했다가

트루먼대통령에게 해임된 사건이 대표적인 예이다.


이들 황야(워싱턴 디씨)의 7인은 상기한 제임스 매티스장군을 포함하여

12대 합참의장이었던 콜린 파월(Colin Powell, 육군대장, 국무장관), 15대 리쳐드 마이어(Richard Myer, 공군대장),

17대 마이클 멀렌(Michael Mullen, 해군제독), 18대 마틴 뎀프시(Martin Dempsey, 육군대장) 그리고

쟌 알렌(John Allen, 해병대장), 빌 맥레이븐(Bill McRaven, 해군제독)이다.




제임스 매티스 前국방장관



참고로 미국 헌법에

Article I, Section 8 Clauses 12 & 13 "Congress shall have the power "to raise and support Armies …" and "to provide and maintain a Navy." 

Article II, Section 2 Clause 1 "The President shall be the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States when called into the actual Service of the United States."

(당시에는 공군이나 해병대가 없었기 때문에 언급이 없다)



****************************************




https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2020/06/james-mattis-denounces-trump-protests-militarization/612640/



I have watched this week’s unfolding events, angry and appalled. The words “Equal Justice Under Law” are carved in the pediment of the United States Supreme Court. This is precisely what protesters are rightly demanding. It is a wholesome and unifying demand-one that all of us should be able to get behind. We must not be distracted by a small number of lawbreakers. The protests are defined by tens of thousands of people of conscience who are insisting that we live up to our values-our values as people and our values as a nation.

When I joined the military, some 50 years ago, I swore an oath to support and defend the Constitution. Never did I dream that troops taking that same oath would be ordered under any circumstance to violate the Constitutional rights of their fellow citizens-much less to provide a bizarre photo op for the elected commander-in-chief, with military leadership standing alongside.


We must reject any thinking of our cities as a “battlespace” that our uniformed military is called upon to “dominate.” At home, we should use our military only when requested to do so, on very rare occasions, by state governors. Militarizing our response, as we witnessed in Washington, D.C., sets up a conflict-a false conflict-between the military and civilian society. It erodes the moral ground that ensures a trusted bond between men and women in uniform and the society they are sworn to protect, and of which they themselves are a part. Keeping public order rests with civilian state and local leaders who best understand their communities and are answerable to them.

James Madison wrote in Federalist 41 that “America united with a handful of troops, or without a single soldier, exhibits a more forbidding posture to foreign ambition than America disunited, with a hundred thousand veterans ready for combat.” We do not need to militarize our response to protests. We need to unite around a common purpose. And it starts by guaranteeing that all of us are equal before the law.


Instructions given by the military departments to our troops before the Normandy invasion reminded soldiers that “The Nazi slogan for destroying us…was ‘Divide and Conquer.’ Our American answer is ‘In Union there is Strength.’” We must summon that unity to surmount this crisis-confident that we are better than our politics.

Donald Trump is the first president in my lifetime who does not try to unite the American people-does not even pretend to try. Instead he tries to divide us. We are witnessing the consequences of three years of this deliberate effort. We are witnessing the consequences of three years without mature leadership. We can unite without him, drawing on the strengths inherent in our civil society. This will not be easy, as the past few days have shown, but we owe it to our fellow citizens; to past generations that bled to defend our promise; and to our children.


We can come through this trying time stronger, and with a renewed sense of purpose and respect for one another. The pandemic has shown us that it is not only our troops who are willing to offer the ultimate sacrifice for the safety of the community. Americans in hospitals, grocery stores, post offices, and elsewhere have put their lives on the line in order to serve their fellow citizens and their country. We know that we are better than the abuse of executive authority that we witnessed in Lafayette Square. We must reject and hold accountable those in office who would make a mockery of our Constitution. At the same time, we must remember Lincoln’s “better angels,” and listen to them, as we work to unite.

Only by adopting a new path-which means, in truth, returning to the original path of our founding ideals-will we again be a country admired and respected at home and abroad.



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diapowder2000
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