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아프리카 Gambia 감비아 유엔 ICJ (국제사법재판소)에 미얀마 로힝자 Genocide 인종학살 고발
12/08/2019 01:59
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ICJ에서 감비아의 첫 번째 버마 대표단

화요일 감비아 대표단은 12 월 10 일 아라칸 주 이슬람 국가를 대신하여 이슬람 국가 (OIC)를 대신하여 이슬람 국가 (OIC)를 대신하여 감바리를 대신하여 국제 형사 재판소 (ICJ)에 성명서를 발표했다.

감비아는 12 월 10 일에 처음 공개되었습니다. 11 일 미얀마가 처음으로 연설합니다. 12 일에는 감비아와 미얀마가 다시 연설 할 것입니다. 감비아 대표단은 Arbabat Tamabado 감비아 법무부 장관이 이끌고 있습니다.

인류 전체가 다시는 대량 학살을하지 않기로 결심한지 75 년 만에이 세대가 다시 발생하는 것은 매우 슬픈 일입니다. Abbab Tambardo 감비아 법무부 장관은 대량 학살을 막기 위해 아무 조치도 취하지 않았다고 말했다.

또한 법원은 대량 학살을 예방하지 못한 것이 "모든 사람의 마음에 얼룩"이었고, 그들이 그것을 보지 않은 척한다면 무책임했을 것이라고 말했다.

감비아의 주장은 미얀마가 수십 년 동안 라카 인주의 이재민에 대한 억압을 억제 해 왔다는 것이다. 그는 그들에게 부족의 법적 권리를 부여하는 것을 거부했다. 그들에 대한 증오의 선전이 전파되었다. 이 민족 그룹을 커뮤니티로 타겟팅 학살이 진행되고 있습니다. 삭제 작업이 2013 년 8 월 25 일에 다시 시작되었습니다. 그리고 인종 집단과 그 민족 집단에 대한 지속적인 위협.

감비아의 요구에 따르면 버마는 대량 학살, 대량 학살 및 대량 학살의 상징이어야합니다. 범죄 예방 및 처벌에 관한 협약 제 1 조 (축제 협약 1948); 2, 3, 4, 규칙 5와 6은 규칙 위반에 대해 직간접 적으로 책임이 있습니다.

감비아의 적용은 미얀마가 제 3 조에 따른다는 것입니다. 하위 섹션 (a)는 대량 학살을 저지른다. 제 3 조 (b) 항에 따라 대량 학살을 음모하는 음모; 제 3 조 (c) 항은 대량 학살의 사법을 규정하고 규정한다. 제 3 조 하위 섹션 (d)는 대량 학살을 저지른다. 제 3 조 제 (e) 조를 위반하여 집단 학살; 섹션 1은 대량 학살을 금지하지 않습니다. 섹션 (1); 제 4 조와 제 6 조는 대량 학살을 기소하지 않습니다. 제 5 조는 대량 학살의 가해자 또는 제 3 조가 가해자를 효과적으로 처벌하기 위해 필요한 규정이 없다고 주장합니다.

또한 감비아가 요청한 국제 사법 재판소 (ICJ)의 요건은 다음과 같습니다. 1948; 12 월 9 일에 채택 된 국제 대량 학살 법을 준수하기 위해 미얀마에서 필요한 모든 조치를 즉시 시행합니다. 버마 군 타트 마도를지지하는 군대; 민병대 또는 비 국가 무장 단체뿐만 아니라 다른 조직과 개인도 대량 학살을 저지른다. 범죄를 저 지르지 않아야합니다. 미얀마는 신청서에 설명 된 대량 학살 증거를 파기해서는 안됩니다. 미얀마와 감비아는 어떤 식 으로든 신청에 대해 보복해서는 안됩니다 기존 분쟁을 악화시킬 조치를 취하지 마십시오. 미얀마와 감비아 사이의 임시 계약에 관한 보고서는 임시 소송 일로부터 4 개월 이내에 법원에 제출해야합니다.

국제 사법 재판소 (International Court of Justice, ICJ)는 아라칸 주에서 소수 민족을 학살하고 임시 조치를 취해야하는 이유로 소집했다. 인종 집단의 여성과 소녀들에 대한 성폭력과 다른 형태의 성폭력; 남성과 여성은 민족 그룹이어야합니다. 여성과 아동 학대 구타 및 기타 잔인한 치료; 국가와 국민이 있어야합니다. 음식, 음식 및 음식은 파괴되어야합니다. 가정 및 기타 필수품의 파괴; 감비아는 미얀마가 상처를 냈다고 주장했다.

junta는 대량 학살이 완결되었다는 사실을 반복해서 부인했지만 증거가 충분하면 가해자의 신뢰성이 확립되었다. 내무부는 최근에 내무부의 웹 사이트에보고했으며, 아라칸 국가의 사건의 복잡성과 버마인의 오해로 인해 국제 사회에 압력을 가하고 있다고 덧붙였다.

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi는 대량 학살이 Rakhine State에 투입되었음을 인정해야합니다. 7 명의 노벨 평화상 수상자들은 수키가 범죄를 비난하는 것을 거부하고 있다는 것에 대해“심히 우려하고있다”는 성명서에 서명했다.

UN 협약에 따르면 미얀마를 포함한 모든 유엔 회원국은 국제 사법 재판소 회원입니다. 미얀마는 범죄, 대량 학살, 범죄 및 대량 학살이있는 나라입니다. 예방 및 처벌에 관한 협약은 1949 년 12 월 30 일에 서명되었습니다. 이 협약은 1956 년 3 월 14 일에 발효되었습니다.  


The Gardian

Gambia files Rohingya genocide case against Myanmar at UN court

Application seeks punishment for culprits, compensation for victims and end to attacks

Rohingya women in Cox’s Bazar refugees camp, Bangladesh
 Rohingya refugees at a camp in Bangladesh. The Gambia has taken the legal lead in drafting the claim against Myanmar. Photograph: Allison Joyce/Getty Images

Myanmar is to face accusations of genocide at the UN’s highest court over its treatment of Rohingya Muslims.

A 46-page application has been submitted to the international court of justice by the Gambia, alleging Myanmar has carried out mass murder, rape and destruction of communities in Rakhine state.

If the ICJ takes up the case, it will be the first time the court in The Hague has investigated genocide claims on its own without relying on the findings of other tribunals, such as the international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, which it consulted for claims against Serbia and Croatia.

Under the rules of the ICJ, the application argues, member states can bring actions against other member states over disputes alleging breaches of international law ? in this case the 1948 convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

The Gambia, a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, has taken the legal lead in drafting the claim against Myanmar. It is being supported by other Muslim states. An initial hearing is expected at the ICJ in December.

In the application, the vice-president of the Gambia, Isatou Touray, describes her state as “a small country with a big voice on matters of human rights on the continent and beyond”.

In October 2016, Myanmar’s military began what it described as “clearance operations” against the Rohingya, according to the submission. “The genocidal acts committed during these operations were intended to destroy the Rohingya as a group … by the use of mass murder, rape and other forms of sexual violence, as well as the systematic destruction by fire of their villages, often with inhabitants locked inside burning houses,” it says.

A “pervasive campaign of dehumanisation” had preceded the attacks, including demands from the local Rakhine Nationalities Development party for a “final solution” to deal with the Rohingya, the application notes.

Q&A

Who are the Rohingya and what happened to them in Myanmar?

Members of Myanmar’s military were the “prime operatives” behind a “systematic campaign on Facebook” that targeted the Rohingya, the submission says.

The submission records that “in the early hours of 9 October 2016, a small number of Rohingya, armed mainly with sticks, knives and a few firearms, reacting to Myanmar’s persecution of the group, attacked three border guard police posts in northern Rakhine state”.

Shortly afterwards, Myanmar’s military forces began “clearance operations”. During these operations, the Gambian submission says, troops “systematically shot, killed, forcibly disappeared, raped, gang-raped, sexually assaulted, detained, beat and tortured Rohingya civilians, and burned down and destroyed Rohingya homes, mosques, madrassas, shops and Qur’ans”.

There were mass killings of Rohingya men and boys, the application states. “The UN fact-finding mission reported that at the village of Dar Gyi Zar, soldiers captured a group of up to 200 men, women and children, and took them to a paddy field, where they were told to kneel,” it says. The men and boys were separated.

Women and children were taken to a house where they “heard repeated gunfire and the screams of the men and boys outside”. When they emerged, the women saw bodies of men and boys who had been piled up and burned using hay, harvested rice and shirts removed from the victims. Some were tied to trees and burned alive, it is alleged. Others had their throats cut with long knives.

The 600,000 Rohingya who remain in Myanmar are said to be in “real and significant danger” of further genocidal acts. The Gambia is calling for punishment for those responsible, compensation for the victims and an immediate end to attacks.

About 95% of the Gambia’s population is Muslim, and its role was welcomed by human rights groups. Its attorney general, Abubacarr Marie Tambadou, previously served as a special assistant to the prosecutor at the international criminal tribunal for Rwanda. He was instrumental in encouraging the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation to support the case against Myanmar.

Tambadou, who qualified as a barrister in the UK, said he wanted to “send a clear message to Myanmar and to the rest of the international community that the world must not stand by and do nothing in the face of terrible atrocities that are occurring around us. It is a shame for our generation that we do nothing while genocide is unfolding right before our own eyes.”

The application has been drafted with the help of Prof Philippe Sands QC, who has written a book tracing the origins of the genocide convention.

Sands, who is counsel for the Gambia, said: “The international court of justice is the ultimate guardian of genocide convention, conceived seven decades ago, on the initiative of Raphael Lemkin [the lawyer who devised the convention], to prevent and punish the horrors of the kind that have occurred ? and are continuing to occur ? in Myanmar.

“The court will be acutely aware of its responsibilities, [and] will surely wish to live up to them in ensuring the fullest possible protection of individuals and groups.”

The prosecutor of the international criminal court (ICC), also in The Hague, has already opened a preliminary investigation against Myanmar. Because the country has not signed up to the court, however, the claim relies on more complex legal basis that the alleged crime of deportation of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya refugees partially took place inside neighbouring Bangladesh, which is a member of the ICC.

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Myanmar leader departs for The Hague in ICJ case

State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has left for The Hague, Netherlands, on Sunday, to defend Myanmar against Gambia’s case at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for violating the Genocide Convention.

Gambia’s case stemmed from the Tatmadaw’s (military’s) massive crackdown in northern Rakhine State in 2017 that forced over 700,000 Muslims to flee to neighbouring Bangladesh. The international community accused Myanmar of perpetrating systematic abuses against the Muslim minority, including murder, rape, arson, and other atrocities.

The government has vehemently denied the accusations and claimed it had already punished troops who were proven to have committed abuses in Rakhine.

U Kyaw Tint Swe, minister of the State Counsellor’s office; U Kyaw Tin, minister of International Cooperation; and other senior officials accompanied the State Counsellor.

The ICJ will hold hearings in the case from Tuesday to Thursday.

Gambia will ask the 16-member panel of judges at the ICJ to impose “provisional measures” to protect northern Rakhine Muslims before the case is heard in full.

Gambia filed the lawsuit against Myanmar at the ICJ on November 11 for violating its obligations under the Genocide Convention. The lawsuit seeks to ensure Myanmar’s responsibility as a state for genocide committed against Muslims in northern Rakhine.

Most Myanmar people consider northern Rakhine Muslims illegal immigrants from Bangladesh although they have lived in the state for generations.

The International Criminal Court has also authorised an investigation of crimes against northern Rakhine Muslims. But, Myanmar said it would not cooperate with the probe because it is not a signatory of the Rome Statute.

The ICJ settles disputes between nations, while the ICC seeks to convict individuals responsible for crimes.


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아프리카 Gambia 감비아 유엔 ICJ (국제사법재판소)에 미얀마 로힝자 Genocide 인종학살 고발